Bioagent Export Control List

This list is subject to change (Current as of March 2024).

Per the Export Administration Regulations (EAR; Category 1 – Materials, Chemicals, Microorganisms and Toxins, last updated 2023-11-17), a license will be required to export the following bioagents. Other export controls may apply for possession and use in the US.

Note: These Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) control all biological agents and toxins, regardless of quantity or attenuation, that are identified in the List of Items Controlled for the ECCN, including small quantities or attenuated strains of select biological agents and toxins that are excluded from the lists of select biological agents and toxins by APHIS, the CDC and HHS (7 CFR 331, 9 CFR 121, and 42 CFR 73).

For more information contact Export Controls and International Compliance at Oregon State.

Human and Animal Pathogens (ECCN 1C351)

  1. African horse sickness virus
  2. African swine fever virus
  3. *Andes virus
  4. Avian influenza (AI) viruses identified as having high pathogenicity (HP), as follows:
    1. AI viruses that have an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in 6-week-old chickens greater than 1.2; or
    2. AI viruses that cause at least 75% mortality in 4- to 8-week old chickens infected intravenously.
    3. Note: Avian influenza (AI) viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype that do not have either of the characteristics described above should be sequenced to determine whether multiple basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule (HAO). If the amino acid motif is similar to that observed for other HPAI isolates, then the isolate being tested should be considered HPAI and the virus is controlled.
  5. *Bluetongue virus
  6. Chapare virus
  7. *Chikungunya virus
  8. *Choclo virus
  9. Classical swine fever virus (Hog cholera virus)
  10. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus
  11. *Dobrava-Belgrade virus
  12. Eastern equine encephalitis virus
  13. Ebola virus (includes all members of the Ebolavirus genus)
  14. Foot and mouth disease virus
  15. Goat pox virus
  16. Guanarito virus
  17. *Hantaan virus
  18. Hendra virus (Equine morbillivirus)
  19. Hog cholera virus (Classical swine fever virus)
  20. *Japanese encephalitis virus
  21. Junin virus
  22. Kyasanur Forest virus
  23. *Laguna Negra virus
  24. Lassa fever virus
  25. *Louping ill virus
  26. Lujo virus
  27. Lumpy skin disease virus
  28. *Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
  29. Machupo virus
  30. Marburg virus (includes all members of the Marburgvirus genus)
  31. Middle East respiratory syndromerelated coronavirus (MERS-related coronavirus)
  32. Monkeypox virus
  33. *Murray Valley encephalitis virus
  34. Newcastle disease virus
  35. Nipah virus
  36. Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus
  37. *Oropouche virus
  38. Peste des petits ruminants virus
  39. Porcine Teschovirus
  40. *Powassan virus
  41. Rabies virus and all other members of the Lyssavirus genus
  42. Reconstructed 1918 influenza virus; 
    1. Note: This includes reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments.
  43. Rift Valley fever virus
  44. Rinderpest virus
  45. *Rocio virus
  46. Sabia virus
  47. *Seoul virus
  48. Severe acute respiratory syndromerelated coronavirus (SARS-related coronavirus
  49. Sheeppox virus
  50. *Sin Nombre virus
  51. *St. Louis encephalitis virus
  52. Suid herpesvirus 1 (Pseudorabies virus; Aujeszky's disease)
  53. Swine vesicular disease virus
  54. Tickborne encephalitis virus (Far eastern subtype, formerly Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus)
  55. Tickborne encephalitis virus (Siberian subtype, formerly West Siberian virus)
  56. Variola virus
  57. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  58. *Vesicular stomatitis virus
  59. *Western equine encephalitis virus
  60. *Yellow fever virus
  1. Bacillus anthracis
  2. Brucella abortus
  3. Brucella melitensis
  4. Brucella suis
  5. Burkholderia mallei (Pseudomonas mallei)
  6. Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei)
  7. *Chlamydia psittaci (formerly Chlamydophila psittaci)
  8. Clostridium argentinense (formerly Clostridium botulinum Type G), botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
  9. Clostridium baratii, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
  10. Clostridium botulinum
  11. Clostridium butyricum, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
  12. *Clostridium perfringens, epsilon toxin producing types
  13. Coccidioides immitis
  14. Coccidioides posadasii
  15. Coxiella burnetii
  16. Francisella tularensis
  17. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (“strain F38”)
  18. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC (small colony) (a.k.a contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)
  19. Rickettsia prowazekii
  20. *Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella typhi)
  21. *Shiga toxin producing Eschericia coli (STEC) of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157 and other shiga toxin producing serogroups
    1. Note: Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) includes, inter alia, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), verotoxin producing E. coli (VTEC) or verocytotoxin producing E. coli (VTEC)
  22. *Shigella dysenteriae
  23. *Vibrio cholera
  24. Yersinia pestis
  1. Abrin
  2. *Aflatoxins
  3. Botulinum toxins
  4. Brevetoxins
  5. *Clostridium perfringens alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and iota toxins
  6. Conotoxins
  7. Diacetoxyscirpenol toxin
  8. Gonyautoxins
  9. *HT-2 toxin
  10. *Microcystins (Cyanginosins)
  11. *Modeccin
  12. Nodularins
  13. Palytoxin
  14. Ricin$
  15. Saxitoxin#$
  16. *Shiga toxins (shiga-like toxins, verotoxins, and verocytotoxins)
  17. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, hemolysin alpha toxin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin (formerly Staphylococcus enterotoxin F)
  18. T-2 toxin
  19. Tetrodotoxin
  20. *Viscumin (Viscum album lectin 1)
  21. *Volkensin 

$The following forms of ricin and saxitoxin are CWC Schedule 1 chemicals (see 742.18 of the EAR) and require a license for CW reasons to export and reexport to all destinations including Canada:

  1. Ricin in the form of Ricinus Communis AgglutininII (RCAII; aka: ricin D or Ricinus Communis LectinIII (RCLIII)) and Ricinus Communis LectinIV (RCLIV; aka ricin E).
  2. Saxitoxin identified by C.A.S. #35523-89-8

The US Government must provide advance notification and annual reports to the OPWC of all exports of Schedule 1 chemicals (see 745.1 of the EAR for notification procedures).

#While only saxitoxin is controlled on the CCL, other members of the paralytic shellfish poison family (e.g., neosaxitoxin) are designated EAR99 (see below).

Plant Pathogens (ECCN 1C354)

  1. *Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus)
  2. Bipolaris oryzae (*Cochliobolus miyabeanus, Helminthosporium oryzae)
  3. *Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus (Clavibacter sepedonicus, Clavibacter michiganense subspecies sepedonicus, Corynebacterium michiganensis subspecies sepedonicum or Corynebacterium sepedonicum)
  4. *Colletotrichum kahawae (Colletotrichum coffeanum var. virulans)
  5. *Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)
  6. Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora saccharin)
  7. Phoma glycinicola (formerly Pyrenochaeta glycines)
  8. *Potato spindle tuber viroid
  9. Pseudocercospora ulei (*Microcyclus ulei, Dothidella ulei)
  10. *Puccinia graminis ssp. graminis var. graminis/Puccina graminis ssp. graminis var. stakmanii (Puccinia graminis [syn. Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici])
  11. *Puccinia striiformis (syn. Puccinia glumarum)
  12. Ralstonia solanacearum, race 3, biovar 2 
  13. Raythayibactor toxicus
  14. Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae
  15. Synchytrium endobioticum
  16. *Thecaphora solani
  17. *Tilletia indica
  18. *Xanthomonas albilineans
  19. *Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, xanthomonas campestris pv. citri)
  20. Xanthomonas oryzae

Genetic Elements and genetically modified organisms (ECCN 1C353)

  1. Genetic elements or organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of ant virus, bacteria, fungus, or prion.
  2. Genetic elements or organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any toxins (or sub-units of toxins).

Technical Notes:

  1. Genetically modified organisms include organisms in which the nucleic acid sequences have been created or altered by deliberate molecular manipulation.
  2. “Genetic elements” include, inter alia, chromosomes, genomes, plasmids, transposons, vectors, and inactivated organisms containing recoverable nucleic acid fragments, whether genetically modified or unmodified, or chemically synthesized in whole or in part.
    1. For the purposes of this ECCN, nucleic acids from an inactivated organism, virus, or sample are considered to be 'recoverable' if the inactivation and preparation of the material is intended or known to facilitate isolation, purification, amplification, detection, or identification of nucleic acids.
  3. This ECCN does not control nucleic acid sequences of shiga toxin producing Eschericia coli of serogrouops O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157 and other shiga toxin producing serogroups, except those genetic elements coding for shiga toxin, or for its subunits.
  4. 'Endow or enhance pathogenicity' is defined as when the insertion or integration of the nucleic acid sequence or sequences is/are likely to enable or increase a recipient organism's ability to be used to deliberately cause disease or death. This might include alterations to, inter alia: virulence, transmissibility, stability, route of infection, host range, reproducibility, ability to evade or suppress host immunity, resistance to medical countermeasures, or detectability.

Bio Agents Currently Designated EAR99

As a result of recent changes to the CDC/APHIS list of Select Agents and Toxins, the following select agents that were formerly controlled by ECCN 1C360 are no longer listed on the CCL and are now classified as EAR99 instead:

  1. Central European Tickborne encephalitis viruses:
  2. Absettarov virus
  3. Hanzalova virus
  4. Hypr virus
  5. Kumlinge virus
  6. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B virus)
  7. Flexal virus
  8. Akabane virus
  9. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent
  10. Camel pox virus
  11. Malignant catarrhal fever virus
  12. Menangle virus
  13. Erhlichia ruminantium (a.k.a. Cowdria rumunantium)
  14. Xylella fastidiosa pv. citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC)

Items designated as EAR99 may be exported using the license exception NLR, specifying no license required, as long ALL of the following criteria are met:

  1. The item is not being shipped to a sanctioned destination;
  2. The item is not being shipped to a denied person, sanctioned entity or prohibited end-user; and
  3. The item will not be used for a specific end-use, subject to higher controls.

International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)

MULTIPLE Export Controls, INCLUDING an export license will be required to use or possess the following:

Category XIV: Toxicological Agents including Chemical, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment

Additional items associated with, or specific to, the biological agents listed are also controlled under the ITAR including medical countermeasures (pre- and post-treatments, vaccines, antidotes, medical diagnostics); modeling or simulation tools; equipment, components, parts, accessories and attachments, exclusive of incinerators specifically designed/modified for the destruction of biological agents in paragraph (b); technical data and defense services.